Prevention can only reduce, not eliminate, the risk of mycotoxin contamination. This is due to the impact of climatic conditions on the presence of mycotoxins, which cannot be influenced by human beings.1 However, there are some ways to maximize plant performance and reduce stress to substantially decrease mycotoxin contamination. These include good agricultural practice (GAP), which is the precondition to minimizing the contamination of grains with mycotoxins; implementation of good manufacturing practice (GMP) during the handling, storage, processing and distribution of cereals.1,2 Solutions to reduce and minimize mycotoxin contamination are divided into pre-, during and post-harvest (Table 1).
|Pre-harvest control||Harvest and post-harvest control|
|Breeding||Appropriate harvest time|
|Sowing time||Appropriate harvest equipment|
|Irrigation||Humidity level before and during storage|
|Proper crop rotation||Temperature during storage|
|Tillage||Appropriate harvest time|
|Adequate fertilization||Appropriate harvest equipment|
|Weed control||Use of fungicides and mycotoxin deactivating products|
BreedingThe breeding of resistant or less susceptible grains is important to prevent fungal growth and mycotoxin production and can be considered as the best solution for Fusarium control.1,2
Sowing timeThe sowing time has an impact on the flowering stage of the plant, which means that the earlier the planting date, the earlier the flowering stage of the grain is reached. Mycotoxin contamination is highest when the crop reaches its flowering stage during the time of spore release.4 This correlation between planting date and the achievement of different production stages means that the planting date and also the ripening of the variety can significantly influence fungal growth and mycotoxin production. For instance in maize, earlier planting dates often result in lower contamination levels, therefore poor weather conditions can pose a higher risk.4 Regarding wheat and barley, winter varieties develop and mature earlier than spring varieties, hence the winter varieties have a reduced risk of Fusarium infection.2
IrrigationIrrigation can lead to reduced plant stress in some growing stages, but should be avoided during flowering and ripening of the crops, especially in wheat, barley and rye, because excessive precipitation, particularly during flowering, favors dissemination and infection by Fusarium sp.1
Proper crop rotation
Cropping systems where maize is rotated with wheat or wheat is grown each year in the same field, appear to increase the disease epidemic. Therefore, without crop rotation there is a greater risk of mycotoxin infection.
Multi-field crop rotation with rape, sugar beet, sunflower or soybeans reduces the appearance of mycotoxin infection.1,2 For example, Schaafsma et al. (2001) observed that planting crops other than wheat two years before growing wheat in a particular field significantly decreased the level of Deoxyniyalenol (DON) in the year the wheat was grown.5
The mechanical, insect or bird damage of grains provides a good opportunity for fungal infection and damage, thus their prevention is of major importance. In the first year plants get infected with fungal spores, and these can colonize other plants and also settle on the soil. After harvest the maize stubble remains in the soil and can be colonized by fungi. If maize is grown in the same field the following year, it can be further contaminated.2
TillageProper soil cultivation and management of residues on the field are imperative to reduce the risk of mycotoxin contamination. For example, ploughing (10-30 cm into the soil) is more effective against mycotoxin contamination compared to minimum tillage (10-20 cm into the soil) and no tillage (seeds drilled into previous crops). Post-harvest ploughing can reduce the growth of F. graminearum, which causes Gibberella ear rot and DON contamination, with maize being very susceptible to this Fusarium species. In addition, the removal, burning or burial of crop residues can reduce the occurrence of Fusarium species in the following crops.1,2
Adequate fertilizationThere is evidence that the use of fertilizers can affect the contamination level of Fusarium sp. of crops by modifying the residues, influencing the plant growth and changing the soil structure along with its microbial activity.1
Weed controlWeeds can contain a broad range of Fusarium species. Any crops which are highly weedy, for example wheat, will have a higher level of contamination.6
Appropriate harvest timeHarvesting at the appropriate time is essential for reducing the risk of a mycotoxin contamination. In general, early harvest leads to lower concentrations of mycotoxins. Additionally, special attention should be paid to careful harvesting procedures and proper drying of the grain.1,2
Appropriate harvest equipmentAppropriate harvest equipment should be used to avoid damage to the grain kernel, as damaged kernels could be predisposed to infection during storage. Additionally, the equipment should be free from residual grain from the previous harvest to avoid cross contamination. Fusarium spores insoil are a ubiquitous issue, meaning it is important to avoid contact between the soil and the harvesting machine in order to reduce the risk of mycotoxin contamination of healthy grain.1,2
Humidity level before and during storageBefore storage the grain damaged kernels should be removed to reduce the infection rate.. Grains should only be stored at 15% humidity or lower so high moisture parts should be removed prior to storage to reduce the risk of contamination.1,7 Water in the grain creates an ideal growth environment for fungi. The water activity (aw) of the grain must be below 0.65 and the humidity or total water content level must be under 140 g/kg to avoid fungal growth. However, there are big differences between different fungi. For instance, Aspergillus sp. can grow at very low water levels, while Fusarium sp. needs higher moisture contents. Atmospheric humidity can play an important role, as it varies a lot between morning dew and afternoon sunshine. The harvesting time of day also plays an important role in the development of Fusarium sp. in grains post-harvest. Delayed harvesting in late autumn can be very wet, which favors mold production. To prevent further fungal growth in high humidity level grain, it is essential to dry the grain before storage. Unfortunately, due to their chemical stability, a reduction of trichothecenes, fumonisins or zearalenone will not arise in the course of the drying process.1,2,8
Temperature during storageBesides humidity, the temperature during storage is also important for the control of fungal growth. If fungal growth takes place, the temperature inside the contaminated spot is higher than in the rest of the silo. With the distribution of temperature recorders at different heights in the silo, any microbial activity can be detected. To combat fungal growth, combined cooling and drying operations together with ventilation systems are necessary to avoid further contamination. Another way to reduce the presence of wet spots inside the silo is to rotate the grain from time to time.2
- Awad, W. A., Ghareeb, K., Böhm, J. & Zentek, J. 2010. Decontamination and detoxification strategies for the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in animal feed and the effectiveness of microbial biodegradation. Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, 27, 510-520.
- Jouany, J. P. 2007. Methods for preventing, decontaminating and minimizing the toxicity of mycotoxins in feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 137, 342-362.
- Hahn I., Krska R., and Berthiller F. 2015 Pre- and post-harvest strategies for the prevention, inactivation and detoxification of mycotoxins in food and feed.
- Munkvold, G. P. 2003. Cultural and Genetic Approaches to Managing Mycotoxins in Maize. Annual Review of Phytopathology.
- Schaafsm, A. W., Tamburic-Ilinic, L., Miller, J. D. & Hooker, D. C. 2001. Agronomic considerations for reducing deoxynivalenol in wheat grain. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 23, 279-285.
- Teich, A. & Nelson, K. 1984. Survey of Fusarium head blight and possible effects of cultural practices in wheat fields in Lambton County in 1983. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 64, 11-13.
- Miller, J. D. 2001. Factors that affect the occurrence of fumonisin. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, 321-324.
- McMullen, M., Jones, R. & Gallenberg, D. 1997. Scab of wheat and barley: A re-emerging disease of devastating impact. Plant Disease, 81, 1340-1348.