Regulations for Food

Worldwide there are various countries with different regulations for mycotoxins in food. This page does not present a complete list, it shows a selection of the most important legislations for international food trading.

European Union 1

AFLATOXIN IN FOOD 1 2
  Maximum Level
Commodity B1 Sum of B1, B2, G1, G2 M1
Groundnuts (peanuts) and other oilseeds, to be subjected to sorting, or other physical treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs, with the exception of groundnuts (peanuts) and other oilseeds for crushing for refined vegetable oil production
8.0 ppb
15.0 ppb
-
Almonds, pistachios and apricot kernels to be subjected to sorting, or other physical treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs (a)
12.0 ppb
15.0 ppb
-
Hazelnuts and Brazil nuts, to be subjected to sorting, or other physical treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs (b)
8.0 ppb
15.0 ppb
-
Tree nuts, other than the tree nuts listed in (a) and (b), to be subjected to sorting, or other physical treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs
5.0 ppb
10.0 ppb
-
Groundnuts (peanuts) and other oilseeds and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs, with the exception of crude vegetable oils destined for refining and refined vegetable oils
2.0 ppb
4.0 ppb
-
Almonds, pistachios and apricot kernels, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs (c)
8.0 ppb
10.0 ppb
-
Hazelnuts and Brazil nuts, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs (d)
5.0 ppb
10.0 ppb
-
Tree nuts, other than the tree nuts listed in (c) and (d), and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs
2.0 ppb
4.0 ppb
-
Dried fruit to be subjected to sorting, or other physical treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs
5.0 ppb
10.0 ppb
-
Dried fruit and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs
2.0 ppb
4.0 ppb
-
All cereals and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereal products, with the exception of foodstuffs listed in (d), (f) and (g)
2.0 ppb
4.0 ppb
-
Maize and rice to be subjected to sorting or other physical treatment before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs (d)
5.0 ppb
10.0 ppb
-
Raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk for the manufacture of milk-based products
-
-
0.050 ppb
Spices:
Capsicum spp. (dried fruits thereof, whole or ground, including chilies, chili powder, cayenne and paprika)
Piper spp. (fruits thereof, including white and black pepper)
Myristica fragrans (nutmeg)
Zingiber officinale (ginger)
Curcuma longa (turmeric)
Mixtures of spices containing one or more of the abovementioned spices
5.0 ppb
10.0 ppb
-
Processed cereal-based foods and baby foods for infants and young children; level refers to dry matter (f)
0.10 ppb
-
-
Infant formulae and follow-on formulae, including infant milk and follow-on milk; level refers to product ready to use
-
-
0.025 ppb
Dietary foods for special medical purposes intended specifically for infants; level refers to dry matter, for milk and milk products to product ready to use) (g)
0.10 ppb
-
0.025 ppb

* Levels currently under discussion

DEOXYNIVALENOL IN FOOD 1
Commodity Maximum Level
Unprocessed cereals (excluding durum wheat, oats and maize)
1250 ppb
Unprocessed durum wheat and oats
1750 ppb
Unprocessed maize, with the exception of unprocessed maize intended to be processed by wet milling
1750 ppb
Cereals intended for direct human consumption, cereal flour, bran and germ as end product marketed for direct human consumption, with the exception of foodstuffs listed in (a), (b) and (c)
750 ppb
Bread  (including small bakery wares), biscuits, pastries, cereal snacks and breakfast cereal
500 ppb
Dry pasta (water content ~ 12%)
750 ppb
Processed cereal based baby and baby foods for infants and young children (a)
200 ppb
Milling fractions of maize with particle size > 500 micron falling within CN code 1103 13 or 1103 20 40 and other maize milling products with particle size > 500 micron not used for direct human consumption falling within CN code 1904 10 10; (b)
750 ppb
Milling fractions of maize with particle size ≤ 500 micron falling within CN code 1102 20 and other maize milling products with particle size ≤ 500 micron not used for direct human consumption falling within CN code 1904 10 10; (c)
1250 ppb

 

FUMONISIN IN FOOD 1
Commodity Maximum Level
Sum of B1 and B2
Unprocessed maize, with the exception of unprocessed maize intended to be processed by wet milling (labeled)
4000 ppb
Maize intended for direct human consumption, maize based foods for direct human consumption, with the exception of foodstuffs listed in (a) and (b)
1000 ppb
Maize based breakfast cereals and maize based snacks (a)
800 ppb
Processed maize based foods and baby foods for infants and young children; level refers to dry matter (b)
200 ppb
Milling fractions of maize with particle size > 500 micron falling within CN code 1103 13 or 1103 20 40 and other maize milling products with particle size > 500 micron not used for direct human consumption falling within CN code 1904 10 10
1400 ppb
Milling fractions of maize with particle size ≤ 500 micron falling within CN code 1102 20 and other maize milling products with particle size ≤ 500 micron not used for direct human consumption falling within CN code 1904 10 10
2000 ppb

 

OCHRATOXIN A IN FOOD 1 3  
Commodity Maximum Level
Unprocessed cereals
5.0 ppb
All products derived from unprocessed cereals, including processed cereal products and cereals intended for direct human consumption with the exception of foodstuffs listed in (a) and (b)
3.0 ppb
Dried vine fruit (currants, raisins and sultanas)
10.0 ppb
Dried figs
8 - 10 ppb*
Dried fruit other than dried vine fruit and dried figs
1 - 2 ppb*
Roasted coffee beans and ground roasted coffee, excluding soluble coffee
5.0 ppb
Soluble coffee (instant coffee)
10.0 ppb
Cocoa products (cocoa powder, powder chocolate, chocolate powder, drinking chocolate, sweetened cocoa, chocolate, milk chocolate and white chocolate)
0.5 - 2 ppb*
Wine (including sparkling wine, excluding liqueur wine and wine with an alcoholic strength of not less than 15% volume) and fruit wine
2.0 ppb
Aromatised wine, aromatised wine based drinks and aromatised wine product cocktails
2.0 ppb
Grape juice, concentrated grape juice as reconstituted, grape nectar, grape must and concentrated must as reconstituted, intended for direct human consumption
2.0 ppb
Beer < 6% alcohol
0.2 ppb*
Liqueur wines
2 - 4 ppb*
Spices:
Capsicum spp. (dried fruits thereof, whole or ground, including chilies, chili powder, cayenne and paprika)
Piper spp. (fruits thereof, including white and black pepper)
Myristica fragrans (nutmeg)
Zingiber officinale (ginger)
Curcuma longa (tumeric)
30 ppb (1.7.2010)
15 ppb (1.7.2012)
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza inflate and other species), liquorice root, ingredient for herbal infusion
20 ppb
Liquorice extract for use in food, particular beverages and confectionery; level refers to pure and undiluted extract
80 ppb
Edible offal and products containing edible offal
5 - 15 ppb*
Blood products (such as black pudding and sausages)
2 - 5 ppb*
Baby foods and processed cereal based foods for infants and young children; level refers to dry matter (a)
0.50 ppb
Dietary foods for special medical purposes intended specifically for infants; level refers to dry matter, for milk and milk products to product ready to use (b)
0.50 ppb

* Levels currently under discussion

PATULIN IN FOOD 1
Commodity Maximum Level
Fruit juices, concentrated fruit juices as reconstituted and fruit nectars
50 ppb
Spirit drinks, cider and other fermented drinks derived from apples or containing apple juice
50 ppb
Solid apple products, including apple compote, apple puree intended for direct consumption with the exception of foodstuffs listed in (a) and (b)
25 ppb
Apple juice and solid apple products, including apple compote and apple puree, for infants and young children and labeled and sold as such; level refers to product ready to use (a)
10.0 ppb
Baby foods other than processed cereal-based foods for infants and young children; level refers to product ready to use (b)
10.0 ppb

 

T-2 & HT-2 IN FOOD 1
Commodity Maximum Level
Sum of T-2 and HT-2
Unprocessed cereals and cereal products
*

* Levels currently under discussion

ZEARALENONE IN FOOD 1
Commodity Maximum Level
Unprocessed cereals other than maize
100 ppb
Unprocessed maize with the exception of unprocessed maize intended to be processed by wet milling (labeled)
350 ppb
Cereals intended for direct human consumption, cereal flour, bran and germ as end product for direct human consumption, with exception of foodstuffs listed in (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e)
75 ppb
Maize intended for direct human consumption, maize based snacks and maize based breakfast cereals (a)
100 ppb
Refined maize oil
400 ppb
Bread (including small bakery wares), pastries, biscuits, cereal snacks and breakfast cereals, excluding maize snacks and maize-based breakfast cereals
50 ppb
Processed cereal based foods and baby foods for infants and young children (b)
20 ppb
Processed maize based foods and baby foods for infants and young children (c)
20 ppb
Milling fractions of maize with particle size > 500 micron falling within CN code 1103 13 or 1103 20 40 and other maize milling products with particle size > 500 micron not used for direct human consumption falling within CN code 1904 10 10 (d)
200 ppb
Milling fractions of maize with particle size ≤ 500 micron falling within CN code 1102 20 and other maize milling products with particle size ≤ 500 micron not used for direct human consumption falling within CN code 1904 10 10 (e)
300 ppb

 

United States of America 4

AFLATOXIN IN FOOD
  Action Level
Commodity B1 Total M1
All foods except milk
20 ppb
-
Milk
-
-
0.5 ppb

 

DEOXYNIVALENOL IN FOOD 5
Commodity Guidance Level
Finished wheat products for consumption by humans
1000 ppb

 

FUMONISIN IN FOOD 6
Commodity Guidance Level
Sum of B1, B2, B3
Degermed dry milled corn products (e.g. flaking grits, corn meal, corn flour with fat content of <2.25%, dry weight basis)
2000 ppb
Cleaned corn intended for popcorn
3000 ppb
Whole of partially degermed dry milled corn products (e.g. flaking grits, corn meal, corn flour with fat content of <2.25%, dry weight basis); dry milled corn bran; cleaned corn intended for masa production
4000 ppb

 

PATULIN IN FOOD
Commodity Action Level
Apple juice, apple juice concentrate, and apple juice component of a food that contains apple juice as an ingredient
50 ppb

 

China 7

AFLATOXIN IN FOOD
  Maximum Level
Commodity B1 Total M1
Corn and corn products, peanut and peanut products
20 ppb
-
-
Rice, edible oil (except corn and peanut oil)
10 ppb
-
-
Other grains, beans and fermented products
5 ppb
-
-
Infant food
5 ppb
-
-
Milk and milk products (for milk powder, calculated on a fresh milk basis)
-
-
0.5 ppb
Formulated foods for infants and young children (milk or milk protein based, calculated on dry matter)
-
-
0.5 ppb
Formulated foods for special medical purposes intended for infants (calculated on dry matter)
-
-
0.5 ppb

 

DEOXYNIVALENOL IN FOOD
Commodity Maximum Level
Wheat and wheat products
1000 ppb
Corn and corn products
1000 ppb
Barley and barley products
1000 ppb

 

OCHRATOXIN A IN FOOD
Commodity Maximum Level
Grains and beans
5 ppb

 

PATULIN IN FOOD
Commodity Maximum Level
Apple and hawthorn products
50 ppb

 

ZEARALENONE IN FOOD
Commodity Maximum Level
Wheat, corn
60 ppb

 

Singapore 8

Note: Official legislation specifies non-detectable levels in all food types

AFLATOXIN IN FOOD
  Action Level
Commodity B1 Total M1
Food in general (mainly nuts, corns and their products)
5 ppb
5 ppb
-
Milk and dairy products
-
-
0.5 ppb
Infant formulae and follow-up formulae (ready-to-consume)
-
-
0.025 ppb

 

OCHRATOXIN A IN FOOD
Commodity Action Level
Beer, cereal and cereal products, coffee
3 ppb

 

PATULIN IN FOOD
Commodity Action Level
Fruits and fruit juices
50 ppb

 

Brazil 9

AFLATOXIN IN FOOD
Commodity Maximum Level
Cereals and cereal-based products excl. maize and maize derivates
5 ppb
Nuts and dried fruits excl. peanuts
10 ppb
Cereal-based baby food
1 ppb
Cacao- and chocolate-based products
5 ppb
Spices
20 ppb

 

OCHRATOXIN A IN FOOD
Commodity Maximum Level
Cereals and cereal-based products excl. maize and maize derivates
10 ppb
Roasted coffee
10 ppb
Soluble coffee
10 ppb
Wine
10 ppb
Spices
10 ppb
Cereal-based baby food
2 ppb
Cacao- and chocolate-based products
5 ppb
Dried fruits
10 ppb

 

DEOXYNIVALENOL IN FOOD
Commodity Maximum Level
Wheat flour
1200 ppb
Other wheat derivates
750 ppb
Cereal-based baby food
200 ppb

 

FUMONISIN IN FOOD
Commodity Maximum Level
(FB1+FB2)
Unprocessed maize
2000 ppb
Maize meal
1000 ppb
Other maize-based products
400 ppb
Maize-based baby food
200 ppb

 

PATULIN IN FOOD
Commodity Maximum Level
Apple Juice
50 ppb




References:

1 EU: Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 (consolidated version 2010-07-01). Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs

2 EU: Commission Regulation (EU) No 165/2010 of 26 February 2010 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs as regards aflatoxins

3 EU: Commission Regulation (EU) No 105/2010 of 5 February 2010 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs as regards ochratoxin A

4 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guides

5 U.S. Guidance for Industry and FDA: Advisory Levels for Deoxynivalenol (DON) in Finished Wheat Products for Human Consumption and Grains and Grain By-Products used for Animal Feed (June 29, 2010; Revised July 7, 2010)

6 U.S. Guidance for Industry and FDA: Natural Toxins: Fumonisin Levels in Human Foods and Animal Feeds (June 6, 2000; Revised November 9, 2001)

7 China: GB 2761-2011 Maximum Levels of Mycotoxins in Foods

8 Singapore: Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA) see Sale of Food Act 2002 and Food Regulations 2006

9 Brazil: ANVISA: Consulta Pública nº 100, de 21 de dezembro de 2009. D.O.U de 22/12/09



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