Patulin

The mycotoxin patulin takes its name from the fungus from which it was firstly isolated: Penicillium patulum.4 To date there are other known Penicillium and Aspergillus strains that are able to produce patulin like P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. roqueforti, etc.3, 4, 8 These fungi are known to produce other mycotoxins like citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxin A, roquefortine C, etc.3, 5, 7 Patulin is mainly associated with damaged and rotting fruits.3, 4 This mycotoxin is commonly found in apples when affected by ‘brown rot’ but also in pears, peaches, grapes, apricots, olives and low acid fruit juices. Patulin is typically not found on undamaged fruits.4 Patulin can also occur in silage material. Chemically patulin is a cyclic compound, soluble in water and alcohols and it loses its biological activity in alkaline conditions.

Patulin

Toxicity

Patulin was believed to be carcinogenic, although recent studies invalidated this option.3 This mycotoxin exerts nephrotoxic (kidney) and immunotoxic effects. Patulin produces gastrointestinal symptoms like gastric ulcers, intestinal hemorrhages, lesions in the duodenum and alteration of intestinal barrier function.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Regulation

No regulation for patulin in feed exists in the EU and in the USA.1, 2

References
  1. Commission regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. Communities, The commission of the European (2006).
  2. FDA US Food and Drug Administration. Patulin in Apple Juice, Apple Juice Concentrates and Apple Juice products.
    Opens external link in new windowhttp://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/NaturalToxins/ucm212520.htm
  3. Keblys M., Bernhoft A., Höfer C.C., Morrison E., Jørgen H., Larsen S., Flåøyen A. (2004). The effects of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxin A, patulin, penicillic acid, and roquefortine C on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes. Mycopathologia (158) 317–324.
  4. Krska R., Nährer K., Richard J. L., Rodrigues I., Schuhmacher R., Slate A. B., Whitaker T. B., (2012). Guide to Mycotoxins featuring Mycotoxin Risk Management in Animal Production. BIOMIN edition 2012.
  5. Marin S., Ramos A.J., Cano-Sancho G., Sanchis V., (2013). Mycotoxins: Occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment. Food and Chemical Toxicology (60) 218-237.
  6. Murphy P.A., Hendrich S., Landgren C., Bryant C.M. (2006). Food Mycotoxins: An Update. Journal of Food Science (71) 51-65.
  7. Richard J.L., (2007). Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses - an overview. International Journal of Food Microbiology (119) 3-10.
  8. Koteswara Rao, V., Girisham, S. and Madhusudhan Reddy, S. (2016). Prevalence of Toxigenic Penicillium species Associated with Poultry House in Telangana, India. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health (2016) pp. 1-9.