All about mycotoxins in general, mycotoxin formation and common mycotoxins.
Mycotoxin formation/fungal growth
Fungal colonization and growth and/or mycotoxin production are generally influenced by a variety of factors.
Therefore, it is not possible to describe a single set of conditions that are favorable for fungal growth and mycotoxin production. The most important conditions are temperature and water activity (available water content to a mold in a substrate). Generally, the optimal temperature for mycotoxin production by many molds range between 20 to 30°C.
The most important factors can be categorized in three groups:
- plant and environmental factors, including substrate characteristics (e.g. composition, pH, water activity, oxygen content)
- possible competitive actions (e.g. associated growth of other fungi or microbes)
- climatic conditions (e.g. temperature, atmospheric humidity)
Generally, in warm (tropical and subtropical) regions aflatoxins are of major concern, while fusariotoxins, such as zearalenone or trichothecenes mainly occur in more moderate climatic regions.2, 5
Furthermore, stress factors such as drought, poor fertilization, high crop densities, weed competition, insect or mechanical damage can weaken the plant’s natural defenses and promote colonization by mycotoxin-producing fungi as well as toxin-formation.
The optimum production conditions vary according to substrate, mycotoxin type, temperature and humidity. The Figures 1 to 7 outline the available data about temperature for fungal growth and mycotoxins formation as well as water activity (aw) for fungal growth and mycotoxins formation of the main fungi, which produce mycotoxins, as these parameters mainly influence mycotoxin production.1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 But even small changes in aw-values or temperatures can already lead to large changes in the optimum growth rate of the fungi and mycotoxins, that is why the values in the Figures 1, 2, 4 and 5 should be seen as indicator and not as the only, single optimal domain.
Interaction between water activity (aw) and temperature on fungal growth and mycotoxin formation
Interactions between certain aw-values and certain temperatures on the growth of F. verticillioides strains and production of mycotoxins were outlined in the study of Medina et al. (2013).4 The study showed that with an aw of 0.995 the optimum growth rate of F. verticillioides was between 20 and 25 °C, but when the aw-value changed to 0.98 the optimum growing temperature shifted between 30 and 35 °C (Figure 3).4 Opposite conclusions could be outlined for the mycotoxin production. In fact, the optimal temperature and aw for FB1 production were 20°C and an aw of 0.98-0.995. From this it can be concluded that the optimal conditions for production of certain mycotoxins are not the same as for their growth.
Figure 4: Minimum, optimum and maximum temperature range in °C for mycotoxins formation.
Figure 5: Minimum, optimum and maximum water activity (aw) for mycotoxins formation.
Figure 6: The effect of (a) water activity (aw) and (b) temperature on the fumonisin B1 production by a strain of F. verticillioides. Bars indicate standard error of the means (Medina et al., 2013).
Figure 7a: The effect of water activity (aw) on the fumonisin B2 production by a strain of F. verticillioides. Bars indicate standard error of the means (Medina et al., 2013).
Figure 7b: The effect of temperature on the fumonisin B2 production by a strain of F. verticillioides. Bars indicate standard error of the means (Medina et al., 2013).
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